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Lateral Ankle Sprain

Fantasy Impact

Ankle sprains, specifically a lateral ankle sprain, are one of, if not the most common injuries in football. Fantasy football players will want to know if they can rely on starting their players returning from this injury, and the data below can help make these tough decisions. Due to the high frequency of lateral ankle sprains, we have large sample sizes for running backs, wide receivers, and tight ends. The sample size for quarterbacks is not quite large enough to draw any conclusions from the data.

For RBs, WRs, and TEs, we see a similar trend in each position. Most players fail to meet their pre-injury baseline in the first game back. This decline in production is present in all 3 of these position groups; however, all three of these positions begin to return towards their baseline, evident by a higher percentage of players meeting or exceeding their pre-injury performance the further out from injury. Ankle sprains appear to be a short-term nuisance but not a long-term hindrance to performance.

Athletes Who HAve HAd a LAteral Ankle Sprain


Lamar Jackson Lateral Ankle Sprain
Lamar Jackson suffered an ankle sprain the put an early end to his 2021 season.
QuarterbacksGames MissedPPG Prior to InjuryPPG 1st Game After InjuryPPG Games 2-3 After InjuryPPG Games 4-6 After Injury
Ryan Tannehill (2022 week 7)213.722 (+8.3)14.5 (+0.8)16.2 (+2.5)
Danial Jones (2022 week 4)015.212.4 (-2.8)24.1 (+8.9)20 (+4.8)
Drew Lock (2021 week 16)0N/A14.922*N/A
Lamar Jackson (2021 week 14)419.7N/AN/AN/A
Mathew Stafford (2021 week 9)024.211.8 (-12.4)23.5 (-0.7)16.6 (-7.6)
Mathew Stafford (2020 week 16)017.423.6 (+6.2)N/AN/A
Daniel Jones (2020 week 14)116.714.4 (-2.3)15.9 (-0.8)*N/A
Number of Players Who Have Met Their Baseline at Current or Previous Time Points
2/5 (40%)1/3 (33%)2/3 (66%)
*Based on 0.5 PPR and 4pt passing TD scoring. *Indicates 1 game was played in the time span. ρ Indicates inclusion of playoff games. μ Indicates re-injury.

Running Backs

Kareem Hunt Lateral Ankle Sprain
Kareem Hunt missed 4 games in 2021 due to a lateral ankle sprain
Running BacksGames MissedPPG Prior to InjuryPPG 1st Game After InjuryPPG Games 2-3 After InjuryPPG Games 4-6 After Injury
Bam Knight (2022 week 15)013.31.8 (-11.5)
Aaron Jones (2022 week 9)01323.6 (+10.6)13.7 (+0.7)
Chuba Hubbard (2022 week 7)22.81.4 (-1.4)5 (+2.2)13.4 (+10.6)
Joe Mixon (2022 week 3)013.815.4 (+1.6)12.6 (-1.2)27 (+13.2)
D’Andre Swift (2022 week 3μ)N/A11.111.8 (+0.7)7.1 (-4)12.4 (+1.3)
James Conner (2022 week 2)018.67.2 (-11.4)8 (-10.6)N/Aψ
Mark Ingram (2022 week 1)06.65.3 (-1.3)6 (-0.6)4.5 (-2.1)
D’Andre Swift (2022 week 1)01415.7 (+1.7)N/AμN/Aμ
Gio Bernard (2022 preseason)N/A2.8N/AN/AN/A
Isaiah Spiller (2022 preseason)6N/A-0.51.6N/A
Ronald Jones (2021 week 17)37.3N/AN/AN/A
Joe Mixon (2021 week 15)020.128.5 (+8.4)10.9 (-9.2)ρ15.5 (-4.6)ρ
Kareem Hunt (2021 week 14)413.4N/AN/AN/A
James Conner (2021 week 14)019.18 (-11.1)16.6 (-2.5)ρN/A
Austin Ekeler (2021 week 14)019.516.2 (-3.3)22.6 (+3.1)N/A
Christian McCaffrey (2021 wek 12)520.1N/AN/AN/A
Miles Sanders (2021 week 7)38.47.4 (-1)11.3 (+2.9)15.6 (+7.2)*
Latavius Murray (2021 week 6)384.3 (-3.7)3 (-5)4.9 (-3.1)
Dalvin Cook (2021 week 4)μ117.421.3 (+3.9)10.8 (-6.6)17.2 (-0.2)
Joe Mixon (2021 week 4)017.710 (-7.7)17.9 (+0.2)24.3 (+6.6)
Dalvin Cook (2021 week 2)117.4N/AμN/AμN/Aμ
Josh Jacobs (2021 week 1)212.18.2 (-3.9)14.7 (+2.6)10.6 (-1.5)
Clyde Edwards-Helaire (2021 preseason)010.18.7 (-1.4)9.3 (-0.8)10.1 (0)
Mike Davis (2020 week 16)111.7N/AN/AN/A
James Robinson (2020 week 15)215N/AN/AN/A
Josh Jacobs (2020 week 12)115.58.9 (-6.6)12.9 (-2.6)20.9 (+5.4)
Jonathan Taylor (2020 week 8)013.28.4 (-4.8)9 (-4.2)22.7 (+9.5)
Kenyan Drake (2020 week 7)112.89.4 (-3.4)18.4 (+5.6)11.1 (-1.7)
Leonard Fournette (2020 week 3)311.912.7 (+0.8)7.9 (-4)5.5 (-6.4)
Darrell Williams (2020 week 2)04.41.7 (-2.7)2.3 (-2.1)4.6 (+0.2)
James Conner (2020 week 1)013.319.1 (+5.8)18.4 (+5.1)14.3 (+1)
Duke Johnson (2020 week 1)27.71.4 (-6.3)4.2 (-3.5)7.2 (-0.5)
Alexander Mattison (2019 week 14)34.33.5 (-0.8)ρ0.3 (-4)*ρN/A
Matt Brieda (2019 week 10)310.76.3 (-4.4)0.4 (-10.3)1.6 (-9.1)*
Devonta Freeman (2019 week 10)213.68.4 (-5.2)12 (-1.6)18.8 (+5.2)
Adrian Peterson (2019 week 7)05.611.3 (+5.7)8.8 (+3.2)11.6 (+6)
David Johnson (2019 week 7)217.7-0.5 (-18.2)1.7 (-16)4.7 (-13)
Malcom Brown (2019 week 6)251 (-4)3.8 (-1.2)3.7 (-1.3)
Alvin Kamara (2019 week 6)21811.4 (-6.6)16 (-2)8.7 (-9.3)
Lesean McCoy (2019 week 2)06.521.5 (+15)8.6 (+2.1)6.8 (+0.3)
Lamar Miller (2018 week 15)114.412.6 (-1.8)12.1 (-2.3)*ρN/A
Gus Edwards (2018 week 13)06.56.7 (+0.2)13.7 (+7.2)5 (-1.5)ρ
Adrian Peterson (2018 week 3)010.55.2 (-5.3)10.5 (0)12.9 (+2.4)
Lesean McCoy (2017 week 17)018.1N/AN/AN/A
Joe Mixon (2017 week 16)011.38.2 (-5.1)N/AN/A
James While (2017 week 15)2518 (+13)ρ11.9 (+6.9)ρN/A
Leonard Fournette (2017 week 6)224.95.6 (-19.3)7.7 (-17.2)16.6 (-8.3)
Number of Players Who Have Met Their Baseline at Current or Previous Time Points12/39 (31%)17/36 (47%)22/34 (65%)
*Based on 0.5 PPR and 4pt passing TD scoring. *Indicates 1 game was played in the time span. ρ Indicates inclusion of playoff games. μ Indicates re-injury. ψ Indicates new injury

Wide Receivers

Antonio Brown Lateral Ankle Sprain
Antonio Brown suffered an ankle sprain in week 6 of 2021, which preceded his infamous departure from the Bucs vs. Jets game in week 17
Wide RecieversGames MissedPPG Prior to InjuryPPG 1st Game After InjuryPPG Games 2-3 After InjuryPPG Games 4-6 After Injury
Tyreek Hill (2022 week 14)021.317.4 (-3.9)
Allen Robinson (2022 week 11)08.1N/AψN/AψN/Aψ
Cooper Kupp (2022 week 8)020.223.8 (+3.6)N/AψN/Aψ
Mike Evans (2022 week 7)013.315.3 (+2)7.2 (-5.1)6.3 (-7)
Russell Gage (2022 week 5)09.63 (-6.6)N/AμN/A
Tee Higgins (2022 week 5)016.47.7 (-8.7)12.1 (-4.3)17.9 (+1.5)
Josh Palmer (2022 week 5)07.512.7 (+5.2)11.3 (+3.8)8 (+0.5)
Jarvis Landry (2022 week 4)μ58.6 5.7 (-2.9)6.9 (-1.7)
Zay Jones (2022 week 3)110.32.7 (-7.6)7.8 (-2.5)7.4 (-2.9)
Josh Reynolds (2022 week 3)08.217.6 (+9.4)7 (-1.2)N/Aψ
DJ Chark (2022 week 3)78.48.6 (+0.2)15.4 (+7)
Amon-Ra St. Brown (2022 week 3)122.83.8 (-19)5.7 (-17.1)12.7 (-10.1)
Jarvis Landry (2022 week 3)08.93.7 (-5.2)N/AψN/Aψ
Treylon Burks (2022 week 2)06.92.6 (-4.3)N/AψN/Aψ
Gabe Davis (2022 week 1)112.35.2 (-7.1)16.2 (+3.9)8.2 (-4.1)
Rondale Moore (2021 week 15)34.1N/AN/AN/A
CeeDee Lamb (2021 week 15)012.18.4 (-3.7)6.1 (-6)2.6 (-9.5)*ρ
Jalen Reagor (2021 week 8)04.2-0.1 (-4.3)0.7 (-3.5)4.2 (0)
Antonio Brown (2021 week 6)917.315.1 (-2.2)N/AN/A
Justin Jefferson (2021 week 6)016.53.1 (-13.4)17 (+0.5)24.9 (+8.4)
Kadarius Toney (2021 week 6)μ14.85.4 (+0.6)4.4 (-0.4)N/A
Karadius Toney (2021 wek 5)04.8N/AμN/AμN/Aμ
Courtland Sutton (2021 week 4)09.521.5 (+12)14.4 (+4.9)4.1 (-5.4)
Russell Gage (2021 week 2)311.614.7 (+3.1)4.5 (-7.1)13 (+1.4)
Marquise Brown (2021 week 1)013.820.3 (+6.5)12 (-1.8)17 (+3.2)
Gabe Davis (2021 week 1)110.72.8 (-7.9)1 (-9.7)4.8 (-5.9)
Nelson Agholor (2021 preseason)011.715.7 (+4)3.2 (-8.5)5.1 (-6.6)
Darnel Mooney (2020 week 17)19.7N/AN/AN/A
Desean Jackson (2020 week 16)15.8N/AN/AN/A
Jalen Reagor (2020 week 15)07.84.5 (-3.3)2 (-5.8)*N/A
DJ Moore (2020 week 12)113.416.2 (+2.8)9.4 (-4)N/A
Jerry Jeudy (2020 week 11)010.10 (-10.1)3.1 (-7)12 (+1.9)
DJ Chark (2020 week 5)0118 (-3)13.6 (+2.6)6.3 (-4.7)
Mike Evans (2020 week 4)011.112.6 (+1.5)3.1 (-8)13 (+1.9)
Deandre Hopkins (2020 week 3)015.77.6 (-8.1)15.2 (-0.5)15.3 (-0.4)
Brian Edwards (2020 week 3)43.32.1 (-1.2)1.3 (-2)0.5 (-2.8)
Breshad Perriman (2020 week 2)316.18.2 (-7.9)14.2 (-1.9)8.3 (-7.8)
DJ Chark (2019 week 14)111.92.8 (-9.1)5.4 (-6.5)*N/A
Marvin Jones (2019 week 14)312.4N/AN/AN/A
Alshon Jeffery (2019 week 9)28.624.2 (+15.6)N/AN/A
Marquez Valdes-Scantling (2019 week 6)07.320.3 (+13)0.5 (-6.8)0.4 (-6.9)
Marquise Brown (2019 week 5)212.96.3 (-6.6)9.7 (-3.2)6.9 (-6)
Tre’Quan Smith (2019 week 5)35.11.8 (-3.3)3.9 (-1.2)7 (+1.9)
Christian Kirk (2019 week 4)310.713.8 (+3.1)18.7 (+8)8 (-2.7)
Tre’Quan Smith (2019 week 2)24N/AN/AN/A
Keenan Allen (2019 preseason)016.522.3 (+5.8)25.5 (+9)5.1 (-11.4)
Amari Cooper (2019 preseason)01719.6 (+2.6)18.8 (+1.8)14.1 (-2.9)
Robby Anderson (2018 week 9)μ17.93.2 (-4.7)11.2 (+3.3)15.8 (+7.9)
Robby Anderson (2018 week 7)17.9N/AμN/AμN/Aμ
Julio Jones (2017 week 15)015.618.4 (+2.8)15.9 (+0.3)14.6 (-1)*ρ
Amari Cooper (2017 week 14)μ113.514.6 (+1.1)21 (+7.5)N/A
Amari Cooper (2017 week 12)113.5N/AμN/AμN/Aμ
Emmanuel Sanders (2017 week 6)28.43.5 (-4.9)9.6 (+1.2)2.3 (-6.1)
Devante Parker (2017 week 5)310.610.1 (-0.5)7.1 (-3.5)2.7 (-7.9)
Sterling Shepard (2017 week 5)210.79.5 (-1.2)13.4 (+2.7)11.4 (+0.7)
Number of Players Who Have Met Their Baseline at Current or Previous Time Points19/46 (41%)24/41 (59%)26/38 (68%)
*Based on 0.5 PPR and 4pt passing TD scoring. *Indicates 1 game was played in the time span. ρ Indicates inclusion of playoff games. μ Indicates re-injury. ψ Indicates new injury

Tight Ends

Darren Waller Ankle Sprain
Darren Waller missed 1 game in 2021 due to a lateral ankle sprain
Tight EndsGames MissedPPG Prior to InjuryPPG 1st Game After InjuryPPG Games 2-3 After InjuryPPG Games 4-6 After Injury
Isaiah Likely (2022 week 11)15.65 (-0.6)1.4 (-4.2)
Tyler Higbee (2022 week 5)011.11.2 (-9.9)1.3 (-9.8)5.9 (-5.2)
Hayden Hurst (2021 week 10)346.8 (+2.8)5.4 (+1.4)3.8 (-0.2)*
Darren Waller (2021 week 6)113.412.7 (-0.7)9.8 (-3.6)4.3 (-9.1)
Maxx Williams (2020 week 11)13.9N/AN/AN/A
Hayden Hurst (2020 week 11)08.36.8 (-1.5)1.3 (-7)11.4 (+3.1)
Noah Fant (2020 week 9)μ093.3 (-5.7)4.7 (-4.3)8.2 (-0.8)
Jonu Smith (2020 week 6)012.61.4 (-11.2)7 (-5.6)9.3 (-3.3)
Noah Fant (2020 week 4)18.25.3 (-2.9)8.2 (0)*μN/Aμ
Maxx Williams (2020 week 1)61.46.9 (+5.5)3 (+1.6)3.7 (+2.3)
Jack Doyal (2020 week 1)15.20 (-5.2)0.9 (-4.3)5.7 (+0.5)
Mark Andrews (2019 week 16)19.85.9 (-3.9)ρN/AN/A
Vance McDonald (2017 week 10)315.2 (+4.2)2.9 (+1.9)N/A
George Kittle (2017 week 9)15.91.9 (-4)2.5 (-3.4)10.3 (+4.4)
Maxx Williams (2017 week 6)μ214.4 (+3.4)1.7 (+0.7)2.9 (+1.9)
Maxx Williams (2017 week 2)31N/AμN/AμN/Aμ
Number of Players Who Have Met Their Baseline at Current or Previous Time Points4/14 (29%)5/14 (36%)8/13 (62%)
*Based on 0.5 PPR and 4pt passing TD scoring. *Indicates 1 game was played in the time span. ρ Indicates inclusion of playoff games. μ Indicates re-injury.

Anatomy of a lateral ankle sprain

The ankle joint consists of three bones; the tibia (shin bone), the fibula, which is a smaller bone in the back outside portion of the lower leg, and the talus, which is a bone in the foot that connects to the lower leg to make the ankle joint.  The way the lower portions of the tibia and fibula connect with the talus bone forms a functional “mortise” where the talus bone is housed snugly between the tibia and fibula.  Additionally, these bones are held together by several ligaments as well as many muscles that attach from the shin into the foot.  

The anatomy of a lateral ankle sprain is highly dependent on the ligament support. Three primary ligaments on the lateral (outside) portion of the ankle are responsible for maintaining the stability of the lateral ankle and are the victims of a lateral ankle sprain.1-3 These ligaments are called the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL).  

The ATFL is the most commonly injured, as it is involved in 90-95% of lateral ankle sprains.1 The CFL can also be injured, typically in conjunction with the ATFL, and MRI studies show that approximately 41% of lateral ankle sprains involve both the ATFL and the CFL.1 The location of the PTFL in the back outside portion of the ankle makes it much less likely to be injured, occurring in only 5% of lateral ankle sprains.1

Like most soft tissue injuries, there is a grading scale for lateral ankle sprains (see below). As you can see, the severity of the sprain can impact function, therefore impacting a player’s ability to play and play well. 

  • Grade I lateral ankle sprain: No loss of function, minor ligament laxity (ATFL), little to no swelling, slight loss of ankle range of motion (ROM).1,3
  • Grade II lateral ankle sprain: Some loss of function, some ligament laxity (ATFL, possibly CFL), swelling, loss of ROM.1,3
  • Grade III: Near total loss of function, unable to weight bear and walk, laxity of both ATFL and CLF (sometimes PTFL), major loss of ROM.1,3

The ankle depends significantly on its ability to be stable to push off the ground when running, cutting, jumping, or any athletic motion. Because of this, grade II and III sprains where there is laxity (a term meaning loss of stability of a ligament), it is much harder to generate force when pushing off of that foot. Additionally, these ligaments provide a great deal of proprioception, which is the sensation of where our limb is in space. When injured, proprioception is impacted, leading to even more difficulty with high-level athletic movements.3

Cause of a lateral ankle sprain

Ankle sprains are the most common sports injury.1,3,4 Sprains occur when the ankle moves into a combination of plantarflexion (like pressing down on the gas pedal) and inversion (turning the sole of your foot inward).1,2,4 In the plantarflexed position, the talus bone moves to where it is not as supported in the mortise by the tibia and fibula, allowing the ankle to be more mobile but less stable. This is necessary for function but does put the ligaments (particularly the ATFL) on a stretch to maintain the joint’s stability. When this plantarflexed position is combined with the inversion motion, the ATFL and sometimes CFL are very stretched. Without any external force, this is fine and does not cause any issue. However, when running full speed, cutting, or landing, the force these ligaments take on may outweigh their ability, and injury can occur. 

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60% of lateral ankle sprains occur due to direct trauma or contact.1 In football, this happens when a player steps on another player’s foot, causing their foot to roll into that plantarflexed and inverted position, or it can occur when being rolled up with the toes stuck in the ground (laces down) and the shin moving forcefully toward the ground. The other 40% of injuries are non-contact, which often occurs to a misstep when cutting or landing and typically will occur when the athlete is fatigued.5,6

Previous ankle sprains increase the risk for another sprain, with 29% suffering another ankle sprain within 12 months.1,4 There are several factors to explain this. Consequences of an ankle sprain include loss of ROM, pain, laxity, loss of balance and proprioception (discussed above), and loss of strength in the entire limb up to the hip.4 All of these components are essential for athletic activity. Particularly the loss in proprioception and strength makes it harder for an athlete to be stable on one foot (running, cutting), leading to less coordination of the foot when it is pushing off and more likely to roll into the plantarflexion and inversion position leading to further injury. Because of this, a history of ankle sprains is often a predictor of future injury anywhere in that limb. 

Lateral ankle sprain Rehab Process

Unlike rehabbing from a high ankle sprain, a lateral ankle sprain is often an injury athletes can play through while rehabbing using external support such as taping or bracing. Because of this, there is no clear timeline for the rehab process; instead is based on progress.   

Early rehab will focus on reducing pain and inflammation through rest, ice, compression, elevation, and NSAIDs if needed. Depending on the grade of the injury, it may involve a period of wearing a boot and using crutches to offload the injury. Evidence supports early mobility and weight-bearing while wearing external support such as a boot or brace and crutches for grades I and II injuries. However, grade III injuries may need a period of time of immobilization and complete offloading, typically no more than ten days.2

For grades I and II, early weight-bearing with the use of external support help reduce swelling, restore ROM, prevent strength loss, and is correlated with a faster return to sport.2 It is encouraged that weight-bearing be initiated as soon as is tolerable. Early ankle ROM exercises avoiding the inversion motion in the sitting or lying position are encouraged for grades I and II but may be delayed for grade III. For all grades, strength exercises on the table for the core, glutes, quads, and hamstrings are performed right away.  

As swelling and pain begin to subside, ROM exercises in all directions are performed and, when tolerable, can be progressed to strength exercises with a theraband.1,2 When tolerable, beginning to exercise in the standing position and working on leg strength and balance exercises on differing surfaces (foam pad, Bosu ball, wobble board) is essential to regain the lost proprioception that is so important for high-level athletes.2

When pain and swelling are virtually gone, ROM, strength, balance, and proprioception are restored, the athlete can begin sport-specific training. This includes agility drills, plyometrics, running, cutting, jumping, and position-specific drills.  

Rehab PhasesTreatmentsCriteria to Enter Phase
Early PhaseRest, ice, compression, elevation, NSAIDs.
Walking boot or brace and crutches as needed to allow tolerable weight bearing (possible casting for Grade III).
Gentle ankle ROM in pain free ranges avoiding inversion.
Table exercises for core, glutes, quads, hamstrings.
N/A first phase
Intermediate PhaseAnkle ROM exercises in all directions (if no pain), progress to theraband resistance.
Seated ankle circles on BAPS board.
When tolerable standing exercises (body squats, lunges, theraband walks).
Balance and proprioception exercises starting on firm surface, progressing to unstable surfaces and single leg.
Minimal to no pain or swelling.
Able to tolerate ankle ROM in all directions.
Minimal to no pain with weight bearing.
Sport SpecificFull return to weight lifting.
Agility drills, plyometrics, speed work, jumping.
Position specific exercises.
No swelling.
Pain free with weight bearing, running, jumping, cutting.
Disclaimer: This is a generic rehabilitation protocol for this injury, if you or someone you know believes they have a similar injury it is advised to seek local professional consultation

In a perfect world, the athlete will score adequately in a battery of tests before returning to the field. This includes strength testing of major lower body muscle groups, several different single-leg hop tests for speed, distance, and balance, and single-leg balance tests such as the Star Excursion Balance Test or the Y-balance test.2 The research for lateral ankle sprains suggests that the injured leg shoulder score within 80-90% of the uninjured leg for a safe return to sport; however, a score above 95% is ideal.1,2 With the pressures of competition, many athletes likely return to the field far before achieving the criteria on these tests, increasing their risk for re-injury. The use of external ankle bracing is often prescribed; in fact, some studies have shown it to reduce re-injury by up to 70%.7


  1. D’Hooghe P, Crus F, Alkhelaifi K. Return to Play After a Lateral Ligament Ankle Sprain. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine. 2020;13:281-288.
  2. Halabchi F, Mohammad H. Acute ankle sprain in athletes: Clinical aspects and algorithmic approach. World J Orthop. 2020;11(12):534-558.
  3. Houck J, Neville C, Chimentl R. The Foot and Ankle: Physical Therapy Patient Management Using Current Evidence. Current Concepts of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy. 2016(4).
  4. Wilkstrom E, Mueller C, Cain MS. Lack of Consensus on Return-to-Sport Criteria Following Lateral Ankle Sprain: A Systematic Review of Expert Opinions. J Sport Rehabil. 2020;29(2):231-237.
  5. Fong D, Leung WC, Mok KM, Yung P. Delayed anle muscle reaction time in female amateur footballers after the first 15 min of a simulated prolonged football protocol. J Esper Orthop. 2020;7:54.
  6. de Noronha M, Kay ER, McPhee MR, Mnatzaganian G, Nunes GS. Ankle sprain has higher occurrence during the latter parts of matches: systematic review with meta-analysis. J Sport Rehabil. 2019;28:373-380.
  7. Dizon JM, Reyes JJ. A systematic review on the effectiveness of external ankle supports in the prevention of inversion ankle sprains among elite and recreational players. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(3):309-317.

Tom Christ, PT, DPT, OCS

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